President: Robert Mugabe
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currency: Zimbabwe Dollar (ZWD)
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Zimbabwe profile
Republic of Zimbabwe is a landlocked country located in the southern part of Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers.
Zimbabwe history
South African businessman Cecil John Rhodes obtained mining rights from Lobengula, king of the Ndebele in 1888. Rhodes' company, the British South Africa Company, got a royal charter from British government to administer the vast territory stretching from the Limpopo to Lake Tanganyika. Rhodes used brute force to supress the revolts against settlers. In 1901, the British South Africa Company merged Mashonaland and Matabeleland to create Southern Rhodesia (now known as Zimbabwe) The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the British South Africa Company in 1923. After years of struggle, Southern Rhodesia achieved independence in 1980 and adopted 'Zimbabwe' as its new name.
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Zimbabwe was formerly known as Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. Present name Zimbabwe was derived from the 11th century city, The Great Zimbabwe. The name Zimbabwe has been derived from "Dzimba dza mabwe", which means "great houses of stone", in the Shona language.
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The capital city of Zimbabwe is Harare. It was founded in 1890 as 'Salisbury' in honor of British Prime Minister Lord Salisbury. The name was changed to Harare in 1982, naming it after the Shona chieftain Neharawe.
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Magnificent Victoria Falls that forms the world's largest curtain of falling water is on the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. The local name for the Victoria Falls is 'Mosi-oa-Tunya' (the smoke that thunders)
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Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume
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Zimbabwe's population growth rate (4.4%) is the second highest in the world
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"Unity, Freedom, Work" is the motto of Zimbabwe
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The highest peak in Zimbabwe, Mount Nyangani (2,593 m or 8,507 ft) is located near the border with Mozambique
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Zimbabwe's lowest point is the junction of the Runde and Save Rivers (162 m)
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Most of Zimbabwe is plateau with three distinct areas: the Highveld with altitudes ranging from 1,200 to 1,675 m (4,000 to 5,500 ft), the Middleveld with altitudes ranging from 600 to 1,200 m (2,000 to 4,000 ft), and the Lowveld with altitudes below 600 m (2,000 ft)
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Hwange National Park is the largest of the eight major national parks of Zimbabwe
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Cecil Rhodes is buried at World's View (Malindidzimu Hill), a granite hill in the Matopo National Park
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The stone-carved Zimbabwe Bird is the national emblem of Zimbabwe. The famous bird carvings stood on walls and monoliths of the ancient city of Great Zimbabwe Five of the carved birds were taken to South Africa by Cecil Rhodes. Four of the statues were returned to Zimbabwe by the South Africa, while the fifth remains at Groote Schuur, Rhodes' former home in Cape Town.
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The Balancing Rocks are geomorphological features of igneous rocks found in many parts of Zimbabwe. The Balancing Rocks in Matopos National Park are very popular. The Balancing Rocks are considered a national symbol of Zimbabwe
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Harare International Airport (code: HRE) is the largest airport and busiest airport in Zimbabwe.
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Joshua Mqabuko Nkomo International Airport (code: BUQ) is located at Bulawayo, the second-largest city of Zimbabwe. Previously called 'Bulawayo Airport', it was renamed in honor of Joshua Nkomo, the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African People's Union.
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About 8% of Zimbabwe's land is arable. Maize is the most cultivated crop in Zimbabwe today.
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The President of Zimbabwe is elected to a term of 6 years.
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Zambezi River is the longest river in Zimbabwe
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Zimbabwe's birth rate is 32 births per 1000 population
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Zimbabwe's infant mortality rate is 32 deaths per 1000 live births
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Zimbabwe's total fertility rate is 3.6 children born per woman
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Zimbabwe has a tropical climate with a rainy season usually from Nov to March
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About 70% of Zimbabwe's population are Shona. The Ndebele are the second most populous group with about 20% of the population.
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Zimbabwe's main exports are platinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing. China is Zimbabwe's biggest export partner.
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Zimbabwe's main imports are machinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels, food products. South Africa is Zimbabwe's biggest import partner.
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Top 10 cities of Zimbabwe with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Harare: 1,543,000
2. Bulawayo: 700,000
3. Chitungwiza: 341,000
4. Mutare: 185,000
5. Gweru: 147,000
6. Epworth: 125,000
7. Kwekwe: 100,000
8. Kadoma: 80,000
9. Masvingo: 77,000
10. Chinhoyi: 62,000

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Zimbabwe has 8 provinces and 2 cities (Harare and Bulawayo) with provincial status.
The eight provinces are:
1. Manicaland
2. Mashonaland Central
3. Mashonaland East
4. Mashonaland West
5. Masvingo
6. Matabeleland North
7. Matabeleland South
8. Midlands
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Zimbabwe's political parties and leaders:
African National Party or ANP [Egypt DZINEMUNHENZVA]
Movement for Democratic Change or MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]
Movement for Democratic Change - Ncube or MDC-N [Welshman NCUBE]
Peace Action is Freedom for All or PAFA
United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]
United People's Party or UPP [Daniel SHUMBA]
Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Wilson KUMBULA]
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert MUGABE]
Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Agrippa MADLELA]
Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance or ZIYA
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Zimbabwe's bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate (93 seats) - 60 members elected by popular vote for a five-year term, 10 provincial governors nominated by the president and the prime minister, 16 traditional chiefs elected by the Council of Chiefs, 2 seats held by the president and deputy president of the Council of Chiefs, and 5 members appointed by the president) and a House of Assembly (210 seats - members elected by popular vote for five-year terms) Results of the last election held on 28 March 2008: Senate - percent of vote by party - MDC 51.6%, ZANU-PF 45.8%, other 2.6%; seats by party - MDC 30, ZANU-PF 30; House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - MDC 51.3%, ZANU-PF 45.8%, other 2.9%; seats by party - MDC 109, ZANU-PF 97, other 4
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Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. In April 2005, Harare embarked on Operation Restore Order, ostensibly an urban rationalization program, which resulted in the destruction of the homes or businesses of 700,000 mostly poor supporters of the opposition. President MUGABE in June 2007 instituted price controls on all basic commodities causing panic buying and leaving store shelves empty for months. General elections held in March 2008 contained irregularities but still amounted to a censure of the ZANU-PF-led government with the opposition winning a majority of seats in parliament. MDC opposition leader Morgan TSVANGIRAI won the most votes in the presidential polls, but not enough to win outright. In the lead up to a run-off election in late June 2008, considerable violence enacted against opposition party members led to the withdrawal of TSVANGIRAI from the ballot. Difficult negotiations over a power-sharing government, in which MUGABE remained president and TSVANGIRAI became prime minister, were finally settled in February 2009, although the leaders failed to agree upon many key outstanding governmental issues.
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History of Zimbabwe
Mapungubwe Kingdom: (c.1075–1220)
Zimbabwe Kingdom: (c.1220–1450)
Mutapa Kingdom: (c.1450–1760)
Torwa dynasty: (c.1450–1683)
Rozwi Empire: (c.1684–1834)
Matabeleland: (1837–1894)
Southern Rhodesia: (1901–1953)
Fed of Rhodesia & Nyasaland: (1953–1963)
Rhodesia: (1964 - 1980)
Zimbabwe: (1980–present)